The Twelve Principles of Animation

These principles formed the basis of what animation was in the 1930's and represent the corner stone on which to build animation today. These principles were developed at the Walt Disney studios. Various writers and animators have reviewed this list and in some instances have found the need to add a few more principles to the list. To develop a deeper appreciation about animation and these twelve principles, I refer you to The Illusions of Life by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnson (1981).

One: Squash and Stretch

Two: Anticipation

Three: Staging

Four: Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose

Five: Follow Through and Overlap

Six: Slow In and Slow Out (Ease in and Ease Out)

Seven: Arcs

Eight: Secondary Action

Nine: Timing

Ten: Exaggeration

Eleven: Solid Drawing

Twelve: Appeal