||1645 - 1879
- The magic lantern is invented.
- The magic lantern theatre, the Phantasmagoria, opens in Paris.
- Peter Mark Roget - an examiner of physiology, explained that an image
was retained by the retina for fractions of a second before being replaced
by another image and that if these images appeared at a sufficent rate
of change, the veiwer had a perception of motion when looking at still
- John A. Paris - an English physician, created the prototype of optical
toys, the thaumatrope.
- Joseph Plateau - a Belgian scientist, invented the prototype of optical
toys, the phenakistiscope
- Horner developed the zeotrope from Plateau's phenakistiscope
- Coleman Sellers - an American, patented the kinematoscope
- Emile Reynaud - a French precision-mechanics shop apprentice, built
a device known as a praxinoscope
- Eadweard Muybridge - a British photographer, invented the zoopraxiscope.
||1885 - 1899
- The Reverend Hannibal Goodwin invetned the transparent celluloid flexible
film which permitted the recording of succesive images on one long strip.
- Thomas Edison started research work into motion pictures
- Emile Reynaud modified the praxinoscope and gave it a new name, the
theatre optique (optical theatre). The first film shown was Un
bon bock (A Good Beer)
- Thomas Edison announced that his kinetoscope projected a 50 foot length
of film in approximately 13 seconds
- George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic strips using
- The invention of a camera that was capable of taking (manually) from
sixteen to twenty photographs per second
- Alfred Clark - an Amercian, discovered that the crank of the camera
could be stopped and started which allowed the images being filmed to
be changed which resulted in uninterrupted motion during projection.
- Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a
cinematograph - a device capable fo projecting moving pictures.
- Herman Castor patented the mutoscope.
- The history of clay animation appears , when a pliable, oil-based
modeling clay called "plasticine" was invented.
- Thomas Edison introduces the motion-picture projector.
- Thomas Armat designed the vitascope which was to have a major influence
on all subsequent projectors.
- George Melies accidentally dicovered the process of having one scene
dissolve into the next.
- George Melies - A French illusionist, is credited as the first artist
to make objects move. He animated letters of the alphabet.
- Arthur Melbourne Cooper - a Briton, made the first animated film Matches:
An Appeal and created the animation using matches.
||1900 - 1909
- James Stuart Blackton - an Amercian, was able to speed up caricature
by modifying objects during a pause in the crank of the camera
- Edson filmakers in the film The Bombardment
of Taku Forts by the Allied Fleets produce one of the earliest
uses of minature speical effects.
- Life of an American Fireman was produced by Edwin S. Porter and marks
an early attempt to tell a story in a sequence of pictures in which
the story relies on actions shown thorugh a series of shots.
- Segundo de Chomon - a Spanish cameraman, marked the beginning of the
use of models in his film Choque de trenes
(Train Collision). He is also credited with the invention of the dolly.
- James Stuart Blackton made his first animated film Humorous
Phases of Funny Faces.
- Walter R. Booth - a British magician, produced The
Hand of the Artist using stop action.
- Winsor McCay used colored chalk and musical accompaniment when he
produced the cartoon act Seven Ages of Man.
- Emile Cohl - a Frenchman, is credited with the starting point of animation
in film. His first film was Fantasmagorie
a film depicting white figures on a black background
- James Stuart Blackton produced The Haunted
Hotel which used stop action and object animation.
- Winsor McCay - an Amercian cartoonist, is considered the first "classical"
artist of American animation.
- The earliest surviving use of claymation is The
Sculptors Nightmare , a spoof on the 1908 presidential
- Winsor McCay produced the cartoon Gertie
the Trained Dinosaur which consisted of 10, 000 diagrams.
- The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) was formed in the United
- Emile Cohl combined live actors and animated figures in the same frame
in the release Clair de lune espagnol.
||1910 - 1919
- Willis O'Brien - an American substituted india rubber for clay figurines
and made figurines equipped with metal skeletons and made films mixing
live actors with animated characters.
- Julius Pinschewer - a German focused on the idea of using animation
in advertising mixing object animation with live-action
- Winsor McCay's live action animated short Little
- Raoul Barre - a French Canadian painter and cartoonist, introduced
the use of standard perforations in the drawing paper which eliminated
jerkiness when moving from one image to the next. He also introduced
the slash system which consisted of drawing the background only onc,e
leaving blank spaces for character movement and inserting sheets (which
illustrated the progressive movement of the character) cut to match
- A black and white animated silent short How
a Mosquito Operates debuts produced by Winsor McCay.
- Princess Nictoine was filmed using
mirrors, camera masks and complicated trick setups.
- Bill Nolan - an American filmmaker used the dolly shot.
- Raoul Barre organized a systematic method of producing animated cartoons
in an assembly line fashion.
- Eclair releases the first animated cartoon based on a comic strip.
- Gertie the Dinosaur debuts as
the first film to use character animation and was produced by Winsor
- John Randolph Bray - an American cartoonist and illustrator, stressed
technological development and focused on the printed background, the
application of grey shades in drawings and the use of scenery drawn
on transparent celluloid to be applied over the drawings which were
to be animated. In the late 1920s Bray released the first animated color
movie The Debut of Thomas Cat.
- John R. Bray released the first of a series
of cartoons following the exploits of a cointinuing character (similar
to the process found in comic strips) - Colonel
- Max Fleischer - an American, invented the rotoscope.
- Winsor McCay invented cel animation.
- Earl Hurd - an American, further refines and patents cel animation
- The Hicks in Nigthmareland is
an animated live action silent short produced by Raoul Barre.
- Paul Terry produces his first animated movie Little
- Raoul Barre produced The Animated Grouch
Chasers which used live action film clips to introduce animated
- The International Film Service produced the animated films Krazy
Kat, Jerry on the Job
and The Katzenjammer Kids based
on the Hearst newspaper comic strips.
- Tony Sarg produced a series of animated shorts Tony
Sarg's Almanac which featued prehistoric silhouetted characters
using stop action.
- Raoul Barre produced the animated silent Cramps
featuring the adventures of Mutt and Jeff - a comic strip duo created
by Bud Fisher
- Frank Moser establishes an animation bepartment for the International
- Bill Nolan innovated a panning background which consisted of a moving
track placed underneath animation cels which resulted in the creation
of the illusion that figures were moving against a background.
- The Henry Ford Motor Company established the first industrial film
unit which focused on public relations films which included an animation
- Farmer Al Falfa's Wayward Pup
is an animated short produced by Paul Terry - which is later included
as part of Aesop's Fables.
- Helena Smith Dayton, an American female animator, used real doll clothes
and human hair to add realism to her clay depictions of fairy tales
and classic literature.
- The Sinking of the Lusitania is
an animated live action silent short produced by Winsor McCay
- Frances Lyle Goldman produced a moving representation of the human
larynx (demonstrated how human speech occurred) for the Pictograph.
- The Science of Life series - about
communicable diseases and personal hygiene, was produced by W. J. Nirgeneau.
- Major Herbert W. Dawley used three dimensional models of prehistoric
animals in The Ghost of Slumber Mountain.
- F. D. Williams received a patent for the travelling mask (matte) system.
- Robert Collard (Lortac) - a French fine arts student, organized the
first animation studio
- Otto Messmer- an American, produces Feline
Follies - animated silent shorts, featuring Felix for Paramount's
newsreel which resulted in the longest lasting case of embezzlement
in the history of cinema. Felix has been described as a great example
of animated mine that did not require situations or comic accidents
to cause the audience to laugh.
||1920 - 1929
- Walt Disney finds employment with a Kansas City Film Ad Company.
- Optical printing equipment is introduced which improves the use of
photgraphic special effects allowing for reverse action, freeze frames
, wipes and zoom simulations.
- The model chart was introduced.
- Oskar Fischinger experiments with film silhouettes, wax and abstract
- Paul Terry - an American, began a new series Aesop's
Fables which contained numerous animals and each series ended
with a moral.
- Oskar Fischinger - a German techincal artist, developed the wax machine.
- Winsor McCay produced the animated silent shorts The
Pet and The Flying Horse.
- The animated, live action, stop motion, silent short Modeling
was produced by the Fleischers and focuses on Ko-Ko, the clown.
- Walt Disney founded "Laugh-O-Gram" and began producing fables
such as Cinderella and Puss
- Walter Ruttman - a German used stop action, hand colored to display
dots in the first of a series of films entitled Opera.
- Walter Lantz produced and directed his first cartoon series entitled
Colonel Heeza Liar.
- Walt Disney utilized Max Fleischer's technique of combining live action
with cartoon characters in the film Alice's
- Felix the Cat stars in Felix in Fairyland
produced by Otto Messmer.
- The Max Fleischer organization streamlined the animation process be
introducing inbetweeners - rookie animators who filled in the action
between the extremes drawn by the key animators.
- Walt Disney Production is founded in Los Angeles, California.
- Fernand Leger- a French painter, produced Ballet
mecanique (Mechanical Ballet) which can be best described
as a collection of live action shots, direct painting on film, classical
animation and special effects. It is considered to be the most well
known film of avant-garde cinema
- The Flesicher brothers introduced the "bouncing ball" which
invited the audience to join in the melody.
- Guido Seeber directed an abstract film Du
musst zur Kipho (You Must Go to Kinophoto) which included
- Viking Eggeling - a Swed, completed the film Diagonal Symphonie wihch
is based on the movement of a white abstract form on a black background
with the main movement being on the diagonal complemented with horizontal
and vertical movements.
- Walter Lantz introduces Dinkey Doodle and Weakheart ( a dog) as characters
in the animated live action short The Magic
- Willis O'Brien produced The Lost World
- a story about explorers in South America finding prehistoric animals.
- Hans Richter made Filmstudie which
was an attempt to convey the sensation of purely visual rhythm. In this
film he used a technique involving the juxtaposition of live action
shots with animation and real people with abstract elements.
- Lotte Reiniger created one of the first feature length animation films
in the world called Die Geschichte des Prinzen
Achmed (The Adventures of Prince Achmed). The technique involved
cut-out animation - silhouettes cut from black paper which were used
to portray backlit people, animals or objects.
- Raoul Barre animated Felix the Cat
based on a cartoon series created by Pat Sullivan. This character was
the most important character in American animation until the arrival
of Mickey Mouse.
- Walt Disney created the character of Oswald (a rabbit) who stars in
the animated short Trolley Troubles
and in Oswald the Lucky Rabbit -
a fully animated production without live actors,
- Warner Brothers released The Jazz Singer
which combined sound and images. This lip-synchronized film was the
first meaningful integration of sound and action
- Noburo Ofuji - a Japanese animator, made the film Kujira
(The Whale). In this film the figurines were cut out of chigoyami (a
semi-transparent paper) and arranged on different superimposed glass
plates from backgorund to foreground.
- The animated silent KoKo's Earth Control
was produced by the Fleischers and stars Ko-Ko the clown and his dog.
- Walt Disney developed the pencil test.
- The Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences was founded.
- Walt Disney releases the film Steamboat Willie
which utilizes the effects of sound synchronization
- Alexandre Alexeieff created with the pinscreen
- Walt Disney patented the name Mickey Mouse. Disney was credited with
the development of Mickey's character and animator Ub Iwerks draws the
- Paul Terry experimented with synchronized sound in the animated short
- Doktor Dolittle und seine Tiere
(Dr. Dolittle and his animals) was animated by Lotte Reiniger.
- Walter Lantz became Universal's animation department head and focused
on producing Oswald the Rabbit series.
- Oskar Fischinger composed eight Studien
(Studies) which were composed of dots and geometric forms mixing and
moving in relation to the sound with each element playing an instrumental
part in the creation of a visual symphony.
- Walt Disney produced the first of a series entitled Silly
Symphonies - The Skeleton Dance
- directed by Ub Iwerks which used
sound effects and music synchronization with animation.
- Paul Terry and Frank Moser form Terrytoons which used original sound
||1930 - 1939
- Rudolf Pfenninger - a Swiss National, noted for inventions in film
and in particular synthetic sound experiments referred to as sound writing.
- Walter Lantz created the animation for The
King of Jazz which was filmed in Technicolor on bichromic
(2 color) film.
- The first Terrytoon Caviar is
- Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising begin the series Looney Tunes featuring
Bosko, a boy whose character was as similar as possible to Mickey Mouse.
- The animated short Fiddlesticks
is directed by Ub Iwerks and is the first of Flip
the Frog Series
- Bosko appears in the animated short Ain't
Nature Grand produced by Friz Freleng.
- Betty Boop appears in the animated short Dizzy
Dishes produced by the Fleischers.
- The cartoon Sinkin' in the Bathtub
is the first produced by Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising which marks the
beginning of the Looney Tunes series.
- Berthold Bartosch in a film L'Idee
(The Idea) combined three dimensional images with shaded back lighting
using a vertically placed motion picture camera, layers of glass plates
containing various scenes and cutout images and illumiation coming from
- Max Fleischer received a patent for the process of creating synthetic
sound on film.
- The Fleischer's film Minnie the Moocher
became a masterpiece of American animation
- The frist color cartoon Flowers and Trees
- a Silly Symphonies was Walt Disney's
first Academy Award.
- The animated short What a Life
stars Flip the Frog and is directed by Ub Iwerks.
- Mary Ellen Bute and Leon Thermin demonstrated the use of electonics
for drawing in The Perimeter of Light and Sound
and Their Possible Synchronization.
- Formal art instruction becomes part of Walt Disney's training plan.
- Willis O'Brien animates King Kong
using a sixteen inch high model, transparency projection, glass mattes,
miniatures and slow motion.
- Popeye The Sailor , created by
Elzie Crisler Segar debuts.
- The animated short Three Little Pigs
- a Silly Symphonies was produced
by Walt Disney which demonstrated a new emphasis on personality animation.
- Ladislas Starevich produced The Mascot
- considered a masterpeice , a film that used animated paper, straw,
dishes and puppets.
- Max Fleischer filed for a patent on three-dinensional setback which
was a device that enhanced the depth in a moving background.
- The colour series Cartune Series
was introduced to compete with Disney's Silly
- The color debut of Betty Boop occurs in Poor
Cinderella - an animated short by the Fleischers.
- Ub Iwerks directed the animated short The
Brave Tin Soldier.
- Berthold Bartosch rpoduced the cutout animation film
L'idee based on a book of woodcuts with an electronic music
- Metro-Goldwyn-Meyers (MGM) created the animated characters Porky Pig,
Egghead, Elmer Fudd, Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny which formed the bases
on Happy Harmonies.
- The Wan brothers made China's first animated sound film The
- Proky Pig appears in the animated short I
Haven't Got a Hat produced by Friz Freleng.
- Ub Iwerks directed the animated short Mary's
- Oskar Fischinger produced Kompostion in blau
(Compositon in Blue) using the pixilation
technique animating cubes and columns
- Russian Aleksandr Lukich used live actors and puppets to produce The
New Gulliver - the first Russian feature fantasy film to
- The animated short The Air Race
was directed by Ub Iwerks and was the first of the Willie Whopper series.
- Porky Pig and Beans ( a black cat) appear in the animation Gold
Diggers of '49 by animator Tex Avery
- Betty Boop and Grampy appear in the animation Be
Human by the Fleischers.
- Andy Panda debuts in the animated short Life
Begins for Andy Panda produced and directed by Walter Lantz
and was highly successful because of its appeal to children
- Len Lye used color mattes and an optical printer to produce the abstract
animations found in Swinging the Lambeth Walk.
- Paramount Studios produce the color cartoon series Color
- Walt Disney releases the animated colour feature film Snow
White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first important feature-length
- Ub Iwerks directed Merry Mannequins
- considered to be his best work.
- The film Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba's
Forty Thieves is the best of the Popeye films due to inventiveness
and the richness of the drawings and backgrounds.
- Porky Pig and Daffy Duck appear in the animation Porky's
Duck Hunt by produced by Tex Avery.
- Walter Lantz produces the animated black and white short Boy
Meets Dog which is adaptation of Gene Brynes's Reg'lar
- Walt Disney's Silly Symphony - The Old Mill
demonstrated the use of the multiplane camera.
- Mel Blanc began his career of voicing animated characters for the
likes of Bugs Bunny, Porky Pig and Elmer Fudd.
- Hal Roach's film Topper incorporated
split screen, animated traveling mattes, stop action animation and subtractive
- Chuck Jones - an Amercian art school graduate, is responsible for
the radical change in Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck.
- Daffy Duck and Egghead appear in the animation Daffy
Duck & Egghead produced by Tex Avery
- The Night Watchman is the first
Merrie Melody to be directed by Chuck Jones.
- The film Peace on Earth, produced
by Hugh Harman, is released. It focuses on a Christmas night honoured
only by the animals since all humans have been exterminated in war.
- Betty Boop disappeared from the screen because of censorship by the
- NBC begins transmitting night boardcasts (New York has 200 television
sets) and part of the programming was the premiere of
Donald's Cousin Gus.
- The animated movie Gullivier's Travel
is produced by the Fleischers which represents the second of the cel-animated
color features produced in the United States.
- Porky Pig stars in the Merrie Melody Old
Glory directed by Chuck Jones.
- Paul Terry patented an aerial image projector using a stop action
camera on a stand with a hand driven projector under the table
||1940 - 1949
- Len Lye - a Zelander by birth, produced the film Musicial
Poster which was used as a curtain raiser. He is known for
making the connection between the roles of filmmaker and kinectic sculptor.
- MGM releases the adventures of Tom (cat) and Jerry (mouse) in the
film Puss Gets the Boot with the
credit going to animators William Hanna and Joseph Barbera.
- The animated Merrie Melody Sniffles Takes
a Trip was directed by Chuck Jones and stars Sniffles - a
- Fantasia - an animated movie,
appears as the first of Disney's anthology series.
- Pinocchio - a marionette, is an
animated movie produced by Walt Disney.
- Tex Avery's A Wild Hare - an animated
short stars Elmer Fudd and Bugs Bunny (considered the first real appearance
- The national Film Board of Canada was founded by John Grierson.
- Walt Disney moves his studio to Burbank.
- George Pal produces a series of animated puppet cartoons -
Puppetoons and Madcap Models.
- Elmer Fudd and Bugs Bunny appear in Wabbit
Trouble - an animated short by Bob Clampett.
- Bugs Bunny appears in All This and Rabbit
Stew - an animated short by Tex Avery
- Superman - an animated short,
was produced by the Fleischers.
- Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy -
an animated short, was produced by the Fleischers.
- Hoppity Goes To Town - an animated
movie produced by the Fleischers, stars Honey - a bee and Hoppity -
- An animated, live action movie The Reluctant
Dragon is produced by Walt Disney.
- Dumbo - an animated movie produced
by Walt Disney stars an elephant that can fly.
- Woody Woodpecker appears in the first animated short Woody
Woodpecker produced by Walter Lantz.
- The first performance of Woody Woodpecker created by Ben "Bugs"
- The character of Mighty Mouse (originally Super Mouse), which followed
the structure of relying on suspense, debuts in the animated short The
Mouse of Tomorrow.
- Daffy Duck and Porky Pig star in the animated Merrie Melody short
My Favorite Duck directed by Chuck
- Bambi - an animated movie produced
by Walt Disney stars a baby deer.
- Beaky Buzzard and Bugs Bunny appear in the animated short Bugs
Bunny Gets the Boid produced by Bob Clampett.
- Tweety - a little yellow bird, appears in A
Tale of Two Kitties produced by Bob Clampett.
- Horton Hatches the Egg - an animated
Merrie Melody short produced by Bob Clampett introduces Maisie - a lazy
blue bird and Horton - an elephant.
- The Hep Cat - an animated short,
is the first color Looney Tunes produced by Bob Clampett.
- Norman McLaren - a Scottish animator was asked to organize a separate
department of the National Film Board of Canada that would be dedicated
- The Three Little Pigs appear in the animated Merrie Melody short Pigs
in a Polka produced by Friz Freleng
- Daffy - The Commando - an animated
short produced by Friz Freleng stars Daffy Duck.
- Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd appear in the animated Merrie Meldoy short
A Corney Concerto produced by Bob
- Herbie and Bertie - two mice star in the Merrie Melody The
Aristo-Cat directed by Chuck Jones.
- Wolf! Wolf! is an animated short
starring Mighty Mouse amd was produced by Paul Terry
- The animated short Happy-Go-Nutty
produced by Tex Avery is the second short for Screwy Squirrel.
- The first digital computer was created,
- In the film Anchors Aweigh Gene
Kelly dances with the cartoon character Jerry. This dance scene is is
considered to be one of the most enjoyable sequences of live action
and cartoon mixing.
- Casper, the friendly Ghost was introduced by animator and script writer
- Pepe Le Pew appears for the first time in the animated Merrie Melody
short Ador-able Kitty directed by
- The animated Merrie Melody short Life with
Feathers produced by Friz Freleng marks the first appearance
- Bugs Bunny and Yosemite Sam star in the animated short Hare
Trigger produced by Friz Freleng.
- Disney releases The Three Caballeros
which used live action combined with animation.
- Ub Iwerks amd Eustace Lycett design the first two-head printer.
- George Dunning - a Canadian, directed Cadet
Rousselle which was one of the first films to use animated
cut-outs, created with a magnetized base and metal cuttings
- Foghorn Leghorn debuts in the Merrie Melody animated short Walky
Talky Hawky directed by Robert McKimson.
- Porky Pig and Sylvester appear in Kitty Kornered
- an animated Looney Tunes short by Bob Clampett.
- The animated Looney Tune short The Great
Piggy Bank Robbery stars Daffy Duck and is produced by Bob
- Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd appear in the animated Looney Tunes short
The Big Snooze produced by Bob
- The live action and animation movie Song
of the South stars Uncle Rimes and was produced by Walt Disney
and directed by Ub Iwerks.
- Droopy - a bloodhound, appears in Northwest
Hounded Police which was produced by Tex Avery.
- Andy Panda stars in the animated short Apple
Andy produced by Walter Lantz.
- Daffy Duck and Porky Pig star in the Merrie Melody short Daffy
Doodles and was the first cartoon directed by Robert McKimson.
- Jerry Oxberry starts the manufacture of the industry standard animation
- Friz Freling matched the two characters Tweety and Sylvester in the
film Tweety Pie.
- Tex Avery creates what has been considered as his masterpiece King
- Norman McLaren painted lengthwise on film instead of frame by frame.
His first film using this method was Fiddle-de-Dee.which
won an Academy award.
- Mightly Mouse and the Pirates
produced by Paul Terry marks the use of an opera style treatment.
- A little African boy Inki is introduced in the Merrie Melody animated
short Inki at The Circus directed
by Chuck Jones.
- The Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) was founded and created
a division within it devoted to computer graphics and animation.
- The boy puppet Howdy Doody, developed for the NBC, started the puppet
revival in American fim and television
- Jordan Belson produced the film Transmutations
which was animated from painted scrolls which in turn were broken down
into frames and photographed in succession
- Chuck Jones developed the series Wile E.
Coyote and with Mike Maltese created The
Roadrunner which was intended to be a parody on chase films
- John Hubley directs an animated short Robin
Hoodlum starring a fox and a crow.
- Woody Woodpecker and Andy Panda star in the animated short Banquet
Busters directed by Walter Lantz.
- Mister Magoo made his debut in Ragtime Bear
and represents United Production of America's (UPA) most successful
- Crusader Rabbit - a series of
brief (4 minute) epsiodes produced by Jay Ward and Alexander Anderson
debuted on television.
- The live action with animation movie So Dear
to My Heart is produced by Walt Disney.
- The animated movie The Adventures of Ichabod
and Mr. Toad is produced by Walt Disney.
- The animated short The Magic Flute
starring a fox and a crow is directed by John Hubley.
- John Hubley directs the animated short Ragtime
Bear which is the first of six Mr. Magoo shorts.
- The Road Runner and Coyote cartoon Fast and
Furry-ous debuts and represents one of Chuck Jones greatest
- To speed up filming which used frame-by-frame shooting and optical
printer procedures John Whitney discovered the process of covering a
luminous surface with more or less dense oil and tracing images on it
using a stylus or finger which was in turn fimed by a camera in real
||1950 - 1959
- The animated movie Cinderella
is produced by Walt Disney.
- Curt Oertel's The Titan is released
which was based on limited animation achieved by ediitng and selective
photographic treatment of static art.
- A Whirlwind I computer generates simple pictures which used a cathode-ray
tube as the output device.
- Oskar Fischinger invents the lumigraph.
- Ben F. Laposky generated images electronically (superimposition of
electrical oscillations of varying time functions) using an analog computer.
- The animated movie Alice in Wonderland
is produced by Walt Disney.
- UPA's Gerald McBoing Boing wins
an Academy award for best short subject cartoon.
- Terrytoons releases its 1000th cartoon.
- A Unicorn in the Garden produced
by Bill Hurtz was considered to be the most elitest Amercian cartoon
- The animated movie Peter Pan was
produced by Walt Disney.
- Life with Tom is an animated short
starring Tom and Jerry and was produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny star in Duck Amuck
directed by Chuck Jones.
- Speedy Gonzales debuts in the Merrie Melody animated short
Cat-Tails for Two directed by Robert McKimson.
- The first three-dimensional cartoon Melody
was released by Disney.
- Ray Harryhausen produced The Beast from 20,000
Fathoms using a front projection technique which utilized
animated models with live actions backgrounds.
- George Pal produced War of the Worlds
which combined mechanical and optical special effects and miniatures.
- Disney studios stop production of the Mickey Mouse cartoons.
- John Fulton begins work on the special effects for the film The
Ten Commandments incorporating animation, mattes and matching
location shots (of note the parting of the Red Sea)
- UPA's release of The Tell-Tale Heart
was a non-commercial cartoon which illustrated the work of Edgar Allan
Poe and was the first example of an animated horror movie.
- Animal Farm was released based
on George Orwell's novel and was produced by John Halas and Joy Batchelor
who insisted that the film be for all ages and represents the first
British animated feature film.
- The Chilly Willy short I'm Cold
was directed by Tex Avery.
- The Tasmanian Devil debuts in the animated short Devil
May Hare and was the creation of Robert McKimson.
- The puppet Howdy Doody reached idol staus with American children
- The Japanese studio, Toho, releases it first film Godzilla
- The Michael Myerberg production Hansel and
Gretel is considered by many to be the most ambitious puppet
animation film ever made.
- Robert Breer made a stylistic innovation in whihc he made each frame
different from the next as shown in Images
- The creation of the first Canadian animated film Le
village enchante (The Enchanted Village) resulted from the
work of Marcel and Real Racicot and was based on Quebec legends from
the colonial days.
- Chuck Jones's animated short One Froggy Evening
stars a singing dancing frog whose perfomance can only be seen by its
- Chilly Willy appears in the animated short The
Legend of Rock-A-Bye Point directed by Tex Avery
- The animated movie Lady and The Tramp
directed by Walt Disney stars a spaniel named Lady and a street mongrel
- The Merrie Melody short Speedy Gonzales
- an Oscar winner, was produced by Friz Freleng.
- The animated characters Bert and Harry
promotion of Piel's Beer sends a strong message of the power of animation
in the advertising industry.
- John Oxberry devised an aerial-image optical printer which provided
an easier method of mixing live action with animation.
- The titles for Otto Preminger's Man with
the Golden Arm were animated by Saul Bass which marked the
beginning of animating titles which were in turn directed linked to
- Jean Jabily - a French animator, was a pioneer in the animation of
collages which was used in such films as Teuf
Teuf and Ballade chromo
- The Paul Terry creation The
Mighty Mouse Playhouse appears on television.
- M. Klein and D. Bolitho composition Push Button
Bertha represents the earliest form of computer generated music.
- A three-headed printer was developed at the
- The J. Arthur Rank organization developed the
sodium-light travelling-matte process which eliminated the matte-line
effect and was first used in Plain Sailing.
- Edward Hofman directed the first Czechoslovakin feature film with
animated drawings Jak je svetzarizen
(The Creation of the World) based on the drawings on Frenchman Jean
- The clay animated television series The Gumby
Show produced by Art Clokey aired on NBC
- Speedy Gonzales stars in the Merrie Melody animated short Tobasco
Road directed by Robert McKimson.
- An Oscar winning Merrie Melody short Birds
Anonymous stars Tweety and Sylvester and was produced by
- Bugs Bunny finest hour occurs in the animated short What's
Opera, Doc? directed by Chuck Jones.
- Walter Lantz makes his break through into television with The
Woody Woodpecker Show.
- Mountain Music - a stop action
animation short produced by Will Vinton is considered a key short in
the history of animation.
- The National Film Board of Canada released City
of Gold (based on Dawson City and the Klondike gold rush)
created by applying animation techniques to glass plates.
- Paramount stops production of the Popeye series
- FORTRAN - a computer language, was developed which allowed engineer-designers
to express computations in terms of algebraic formula. This permitted
designers to utilize the graphic capabilities of the computer.
- A light-blue bloodhound who walked on his hind legs - created by Bill
Hanna and Joe Barbera, became the star of the Huckleberry
Hound Show - a combination of three series.
- An Oscar winning Looney Tune animated short Knighty
Knight Bugs stars Bugs Bunny and Yosemite Sam was produced
by Friz Freleng
- Yogi Bear and Boo Boo - Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera creations, debut
as one of the series on the Huckleberry Hound
Show but soon developed as a series of their own.
- The animated movie Sleeping Beauty
was produced by Walt Disney.
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera produce Quick
Draw McGraw which debuts on television.
- Disney adapted the Xerox process to animation which allowed the transfer
of pencil drawings directly to cels.
- Charles Schulz's Charlie Brown and Lucy appear in animated form.
- Rocky and His Friends (a flying
squirrel and a moose - Bullwinkle) are part of the ABC televison networks
- Matsue Jinbo was one of a few Japanese women to assume a director
role in a puppet animation studio in the production company Gakken.
||1960 - 1969
- The Flintstones- created by Bill
Hanna and Joe Barbera, was the first animated television show to be
broadcast in prime time and imitates the live action show The
- John Halas and Joy Batchelor produce Britian's first television series
- Chuck Jones creates High Notes
with the characters being notes written on a staff which act during
the performance of Blue Danube.
- William A. Fetter and Walter Bernhardt create a computer graphic by
translating a drawing into mathematics and then into computer language
which then produced a computerized drawing of the original.
- Televison shows such as Peter Gunn,
The Twlight Zone and Mr.Lucky
used animation in their opening titles.
- Jules Engel's production company Format Films produced Alvin
and The Chipmunks.
- Television served as the determining factor for Japanese animation.
- Jordan Belson's approach to animation was through the use of pure
light and pure space on the screen without visible human contribution.
Some of his work could be considered as audiovisual, spiritual experiences.
- In his film Allures John Belson
focuses of the unifying characteristic of centrality
- One Hundred and One Dalmations
was an animated movie produced by Walt Disney and introduces the characters
Pongo and Perdita. It was the first film to use xerography.
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera produce The Yogi
Bear Show which debuts
- Mr. Ed - the talking horse, appears
on television and although there is no actual animation the sound track
and editing provide the illusion of a talking horse.
- The Alvin Show featuring three
chipmunks appears on NBC television.
- The film Blazes was produced which
shows rapid appearances and superimpositions of abstract drawings and
printings accompanied by asynchronous sound tracks.
- Noburo Ofuji - a Japanese animator used black and white film and transparent
figures in the production of Shaka no Shoga
(Life of Budda).
- The production company Filmation is formed and specializes in documentaries
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera produce The Jetsons
which debuts on television.
- The animated short The Hole was
an Oscar winner for John Hubley.
- The last animated short that Pepe le Pew stars in is Louvre
Come Back To Me was directed by Chuck Jones.
- The first Greek animated film was a puppet-animation insert produced
by Ghiorghios Thisikirikis for the film Marriage,
- The Sword in the Stone is an animated
movie produced by Walt Disney and introduces the character Wort who
becomes King Arthur.
- Astro Boy (Tetsuwan)
was the first half-hour animated television program produced in Japan
to air in United States.
- The first computer animated film was made at Bell Telephone laboratories
by E. E. Zajac.
- The Disney organization developed Audio Animatronics.
- Photographer Ben Rose created the stroboscopic effect using multiple
images and developed the "guillotine" technique (a tiny horizontal
slit allowed only a portion of the image to be recorded per unit time)
which created the ripple effect in an image.
- Ivan Sutherland devleoped the computer-design system (Sketchpad) which
allowed an artist to draw on the face of the cathode-ray tube in real
- Ernest Pintoff is considered one of the first and best epigrammatists
of animation and produced shorts such as The
Violinist, The Interview,
The Old Man and The Flower and The
- Ray Harryhausen created Jason and the Argonauts
which includes the famous animated skeleton sequence that took 4 1/2
months to create.
- Director Blake Edwards commissioned titles for the film The
Pink Panther which lead to a series of shorts featuring the
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera produce The Adventures
on Jonny Quest which debuts on television.
- Live action and animation are integral parts of the movie Mary
Poppins produced by Walt Disney and directed by Ub Iwerks.
- Yogi Bear and Boo Boo star in Hey There It's
Yogi Bear produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Television networks use animated identification.
- Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea
- an ABC television production which used science-fiction forms and
a flying submarine debuts.
- Eliot Noyes Jr. produced the film Clay
in which he used clay animation to tell the story of Evolution.
- Ryan Larkin - a Canadian, produced Cityscape
which was composed of drawings that undergo constant change in front
of the camera.
- Filmation produces the series Superman.
- Shocking Pink - an animated short,
stars the Pink Panther and was produced by Friz Freleng
- Richard Williams produced the animated title sequences for the movies
What's New Pussycat? and The
- Computer graphics was introduced into the automotive and aircraft
industry for use in design.
- Bill Melendez animated A Charlie Brown Christmas
which won an Emmy.
- Tony Conrad produced the film The Flicker
in which he alternated simple black and white frames with different
widths which resulted in the projection of different illusions of light
and manipulated the diffusion of light into imaginary forms
- Al Sens - a Canadian, produced The See, Hear,
Talk, Think, Dream, Act Film using a 'split technique' which
consisted of drawings and erasing images directly in front of the camera.
- The Japanese production company Mushi released its first color animated
series Jungle Taitei (The
Emperor of the Jungle).
- The Jungle Book was released one
year after the death of Walt Disney
- The animated television special How the Grinch
Stole Christmas was directed by Chuck Jones.
- Marvel Comics used the Xerox process in the development of Captain
America, Ironman, The
Incredible Hulk, Sub-Mariner
and The Mighty Thor for syndicated
- Star Trek debuts.
- Ron Baecker developed the Genesys system which could interpret the
movement of a light pen as either a shape or the path the shape should
follow. The National Research Council of Canada developed a similar
system which could perform the inbetweening based on key drawings drawn
on the computer display screen.
- The film Alphabet was produced
by Eliot Noyes Jr. using marker drawings on opaque glass.
- Bernard Longpre - a Canadian, produced Dimensions
in which he combines live actors and animation.
- Stan Lee's character Spiderman
appears on the television screen
- Cat and Dupli-Cat - an animated
short directed by Chuck Jones is his last rather unsuccessful series
starring Tom and Jerry.
- Richard Williams produced the animated title sequences for the movie
- Ken O'Connell produced 7362 which
included prisms, solarizations and photographic contrasts with black
and white used predominantely.
- Caroline Leaf produced The Street
by using animated painting on glass.
- Yellow Submarine - an animation
with brief live action produced by George Dunning is based on a Beatles
- The New Adventures of Huck Finn
- a Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera creation, debuts on television and was
among the earliest television series to use live action and animation
- Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey
was the first film to use front projection techniques (created a brighter
- Permutations was the first film
that John Whitney considered to be a complete work which used kaleidoscope
movements with color added using an optical printer.
- Peter Kamnitzers produced City-scapes
using the NASA II computer which drew images based on mathematical input
but without any input of preexisitng images.
- The production company owned by John Halas and Joy Batchelor begins
to operate in the field of computer animation - one of the first in
the world and produces What is a Computer?
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera create Scooby Doo,
a cowardly Great Dane which debuts on television in Scooby-Doo
Where Are You?
- Jim Henson's Sesmae
Street debuts on television - a mixture of puppets and animation.
- John and Faith Hubley produce the animated short
Of Men & Demons.
- The Phantom Toll Booth
- an animated live action movie, is directed by Chuck Jones and stars
Melo in live action.
- Ward Kimball - a Disney animator uses cutout
collage sequences in the short It's Tough to
be a Bird.
- The SCANIMATE computer animation was unveiled
which allowed original art to be transferred to the computer cathode-ray
tube by a television camera which permitted images to be resized, rotated,
- Jacobus Willem 'Co' Hoedeman becomes Canada's
leading expert in animated puppets.
||1970 - 1979
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera produce Wacky
Races which debuts on television.
- Evelyn Lambart - a Canadian produced Paradise
Lost which was an ecological pamphlet made with cut-outs.
- Japanese animators focused on the television market with an orientation
- Norman McLaren releases the film Synchromy
in which the same images that produced the sound on the sound track
had been painted on the visual film.
- Ub Iwerks was considered the technical genius for the animation -
live action movie Bedknobs and Broomsticks.
- Chuck Jones was the executive producer and Richard Williams was the
producer for Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol,
Being a Ghost Story of Christmas.
- Lee Harrison developed CAESAR (Computer Animated Episodes Single Axis
Rotation) which enabled animators to create short sequences and then
review them on a color television monitor. The Learn
To Count series of Sesame Street
used this process.
- Charles Vaughn and Gene Nottingham developed a computer-assisted animation
stand which made complex calculations which in turn sent instructions
to motors which contolled the table and camera movement.
- Downwind was produced by Ken O'Connell
mixing animation, live action, time-lapse photography and an optical
- Laurent Coderre - a Canadian, produced a short poem on humanity made
by animating thousands of pieces of linoleum.
- Sinbad the Sailor was produced
by Karel Zerman
- The animated movie Oliver and the Art Ful
Dodger is presented as a sequel to Charles Dickens' Oliver
Twist and was produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Fritz (a cat) appears in the animated movie Fritz
the Cat produced by Ralph Bakshi.
- In Gulls & Buoys Robert Breer
uses the rotoscope to explore the relationship between live action shots
and the production of animated figures.
- Ed Emshwiller used a mix of live action dancers, electronically distorted
images and animation om magnetic tape in his production of Scape-mates.
- Kihachiro Kawamoto - a Japanese animator, produced Oni
(The She-Devil) which used puppets
based on Japanese Noh masks and the Bunraku puppets.
- Animation and live action are part of the movie Heavy
Traffic produced by Ralph Bahshi
- Fern, Wilbur (a pig), and Charlotte (a spider) star in the animated
movie Charlotte's Web which was
produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera produce The Addams
Family which debuts on television.
- Chester C. Cricket stars in the animated television featurette The
Cricket in Times Square directed by Chuck Jones.
- William M. Newman and Robert F. Sproull write the first computer graphics
textbook Principles of Interactive Computer
- Rene laloux and Roland Topor produce
- Eliot Noyes Jr. used sand animation in the production
- Director and designer Alan Kitching develops
Antics for use in computer animation.
- The live action animated movie Streetfight
(a name change for video release) was produced by Ralph Bakshi
- The animated short Banjo the Woodpile Cat
was produced by Don Bluth and introduces a little kitten named Banjo.
- Richard Williams produced the animated title sequences for the movie
The Return of the Pink Panther.
- The NBC television production Land of the
Lost incorporated animation with live action.
- Terry Gilliam animates the television program Monty
Python's Flying Circus.
- The Muppets of Sesame Street win
an Emmy - for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Children's Programming
- Jane Aaron produced A Brand New Day
- a story drawn entirely on paper.
- Will Vinton's Closed Monday is
an animated clay short that won an Oscar and this represents the birth
of claymation - a techinque that he perfected and patented.
- Caroline Leaf produced The Owl Who Married
the Goose - a film of animated sand , while employed by the
Canadian National Film Board.
- Terry Gilliam served as animator for the animation live action movie
Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
- Visual Images of Washington D.C. develop an animation system which
included an electronic memory system that permitted exact and instant
repetition of camera and lens movement.
- "Laser-light" animation - developed by CPC Associates of
Hollywood, utilized overexposed negative images which were combined
with laser-like explosions and color filters.
- Tom Klimek and Richard Brown patent the Video-cel techinque which
permitted the inbetweening of key drawings adding color and three dimensions.
- Space:1999 debuts United States
- Everybody Rides the Carousel directed
by John Hubley debuts as a made for television animated movie.
- The Muppets of Sesame Street win
a second Emmy - for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Children's
- The film Earthquake is released
which included the use of miniatures, shaker platforms and rotoscoped
- Karel Zerman produced the film The Sorcerer's
- An animation with live action archive footage called Wizards
is produced by Ralph Bakshi.
- A Doonesbury Special based on
Garry Trudeau's Doonesbury comic strip and directed by John Hubley debuts
as a made for television animated featurette.
- Richard williams directed the animated movie Raggedly
Ann and Andy: A Musical Adventure.
- Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope
is directed by George Lucas and produced by Gary Kurtz and stars Mark
Hamill, Harrison Ford and Carrie Fisher.
- The animated movie The Lord of the Rings
directed by Ralph Bakshi introduces the viewers to Frodo and Gandolf.
- Chuck Jones features Bugs Bunny in the television special A
Connecticut Rabbit in King Arthur's Court.
- Raggedy Ann and Andy star in the television special The
Great Santa Claus Caper produced by Chuck Jones.
- Alan Kitching developed Antics which allowed a programmer to enter
of the coordinates of a drawing into a computer using a light pen and
then modify its configuration.
- Disney Studios produce The Rescurers
and re-release The Jungle Book.
- The Muppet Show was the top syndicated television program in the United
- George Griffin draws on a collection of sixty-nine independent animators
in the film Frames.
- Jim Henson's movie The Muppet Movie
- Chuck Jones produced the Bugs Bunny/Road
- The Computer-Aided Animation System (CASS) becomes operational at
the Computer Graphics Laboratory at the New York Institute of Technology
which allows for the production of three dimensional animated features.
- Star Trek, The Motion Picture
debuts and in its production used the Evans and Sutherland Picture System
II Vector Display which took individual drawings and turned them into
three-dimensional shaded and colored objects which could be manipulated
using a joystick.
- Hayao Miyazaki directs the anime The Castle
||1980 - 1989
- Marvel Productions is formed as a branch of Marvel Comics.
- Heathcliff - a fat cunning cat, is brought to the screen by Joe Ruby
and Ken Spears
- Star Wars: Episode V: The Empire Strikes
Back is directed by Irvin Kershner,
produced by Gary Kurtz with the story by George Lucas starring Mark
Hamill, Harrison Ford, abd Carrie Fisher.
- James Weldon Johnson's The Creation
is an animated short produced by Will Vinton featuring the art of Joan
- The story of 20th Century pop music is presented in American
Pop - an animation with live action archive footage produced
by Ralph Bakshi.
- Friz Freleng's Looney Looney Looney Bugs
Bunny Movie is a celebration of Freleng's work at Warners
and is presented as an animation with some live action clips.
- Jim Henson's movie The Great Muppet Caper
- Computer animation becomes a well established graphics medium.
- Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan
is the first feature film to utilize computer animation extensively.
- Vinny - an Italian gang leader, stars in the animated movie Hey
Good Lookin' produced by Ralph Bakshi.
- The animated movie The Secret of NIMH
produced by Don Bluth introduces the characater Mrs. Brisby - a widowed
- Jim Henson's movie The Dark Crystal
is a combination of puppetry, animatronics and stop action animation.
- The He-Man and The Masters Of The Universe
series saves Filmation from a business crisis.
- The animated movie Fire & Ice
directed by Ralph Bakshi introduces the characters Larn, Darkwolf and
- Jim Henson's Fraggle Rock appears
- Star Wars: Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
is directed by Richard Marquand and produced by Howard Kazanjian with
executive producer George Lucas and stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford
and Carrie Fisher.
- Jim Henson's movie The Muppets Take Manhattan
- Bill Phympton produces the animated short Boomtown
in which the Android sisters introduce themselves.
- The Adventure of Mark Twain was
produced by Will Vinton as a stop motion animated movie.
- Starchaser: The Legend of Orin
is a 3D film using animation and was directed by Steven Hahn.
- Tatsuo Shimamura - a Japanese animator produced Kachofugetsu
(Japan's Four Seasons) using animated
drawings, computer graphics, and plasticine animation.
- Don Bluth and Steven Spielberg co-produced An
Amercian Tail - the adventures of a little Jewish mouse -
- Will Vinton creates the California raisins as part of a television
- Jim Henson's The Labyrinth is
a movie that combines live action, puppetry, animatronics and stop action
- Yogi's Great Escape - an animated
movie produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera
- The animated movie The Jetsons Meet The Flintstones
was produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera
- Littlefoot, Cera and Petrie, orphaned infant dinosaurs star in the
animated movie The Land Before Time
directed by Don Bluth
- Yogi Bear and the Magical Flight of the Spruce
Goose is a Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera animated movie that
uses mant of their stock characters (Huckleberry Hound, Quick Draw McGraw,
Augie Doggie, etc.)
- Herb and Rex, two dinosaurs star in A Claymation
Christmas Celebration - a stop motion animation with some
conventional animation produced for television by Will Vinton.
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit is
released, directed by Robert Zemeckis with animation entrusted to Richard
Williams. This film represented the first plausible screen relationship
between drawn and live actors.
- The animated movie Yogi and The Invasion
of the Space Bears was produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Jan Svankmajer prodices Alice
using stop motion animation, live action and puppetry.
- Meet The Raisins is produced by
Will Vinton as a stop motion animation with some conventional animation
- Will Venton worked on the Speed Demon
section of the Michael Jackson music movie Moonwalker.
- Katsuhiro Otomo direct the high quality anime
- The Little Mermaid directed by
John Musker and Ron Clements debuts.
- All Dogs Go To Heaven is an animated
movie starring the mongrel Charlie B. Barkin and was produced by Don
- Wallace and Gromit are introduced as the characters in the stop motion
animated short A Grand Day Out produced
by Nick Park.
- John Lasseter produced the film Tin Toy
which won the first Oscar ever awarded for a computer animatd film.
||1990 - 1999
- The Simpsons debuts as a prime
time television cartoon show.
- The animated movie Jetsons: The Movie
was produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Jan Svankmajer uses live action, stop motion animation, photomontage
and archival footage in the movie The Death
of Stalinism in Bohemia,
- Beauty and the Beast directed
by Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise debuts and itr became the first and
only animated film to be nominated for Best Picture Academy Award and
picked up Oscars for Best Score and Best Original Song.
- Chanticlear - a rooster, is the star of the animated (with some live
action) movie Rock-A-Doodle directed
by Don Bluth.
- Nick Park won an Academy Award for Creature
Comforts which featured plasticine models of zoo animals
involved in 'real' human conversations which had be pre-recorded.
- The animated movie Alladin debuts
directed by John Musker and Ron Clements
- The animated live action movie Cool World
was directed by Ralph Bakshi.
- Chuck Jones is responsible for the animated sections in the techno-fantasy
movie Stay Tuned.
- The Tune - an animated movie produced
by Bill Phymton, introdiuces the chara cters Mr. Mega and Del.
- A Troll in Central Park directed
by Don Bluth is an animated movie starring the trolls Gnorga and Stanley.
- Chuck Jones is responsible for the animation in the film Mrs.
- The stop motion animated short The Wrong
Trousers stars Gromit and Wallace and was produced by Nick
- Harry Selick directs the feature length claymation The
Nightmare Before Christmas.
- Live action, stop motion animation and puppetry are the components
of the movie Faust produced by Jan
- The animated movie Thumbelina
was directed by Don Bluth.
- Scooby-Doo and Shaggy star in the animated movie Arabian
Nights produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- The animated short Chariots of Fur
is the last in the series of Road Runner and Wilie E. Coyote created
by Chuck Jones
- David Carson directs Star Trek: Generations
which stars Patrick Stewart, William Shatner and Jonathan Frakes.
- Hubie and Marina are introduced in the animated movie The
Pebble and the Penguin produced by Don Bluth.
- Jonny Quest Versus the Cyber Insects
is an animated movie produced by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera.
- Chuck Jones produces Another Froggy Evening
- Wallace and Gromit star in A Close Shave
- a stop action animated short produced by Nick Park.
- Richard Williams produced the animated movie The
Thief and the Cobbler.
- Toy Story directed by John Lasseter
was the first feature-length movie completely done on a computer.
- Mamoru Oshii directs the anime Ghost in the
- Chuck Jones produces From Hare to Eternity
and Superior Duck.
- The claymation movie James and the Giant
Peach is directed by Henry Selick with leading roles by Joanna
Lumley, Miriam Nargolyes and Paul Terry.
- Jonathan Frakes directs Star Trek: First
Contact which stars Jonathan Frakes, Patrick Stewart and
- The animated movie Anastasia was
produced by Don Bluth
- Chcuk Jones produces Pullet Surprise
and The Father of the Bird.
- Will Vinton helps produce The Online Adventures
of Ozzie the Elf based on a web site character and done in
conjuction with America On Line.
- Hayao Miyazaki directs the anime Princess
- Gary Halvorson directs The Adventures of
Elmo in Grouchland starring Kevin Clash, Vanessa williams
and Sonya Manzano.
- The film Antz debuts directed
by Eric Darnell and Tim Johnson.
- John Lasseter and Andrew Stanton produce A
- Patrick Stewart, Brent Spinner and Michael Dorn star in Star
Trek: Insurrection directed by Jonathan Frakes.
- Barney's Great Adventure - which
stars a purple dinosaur - is directed by Steve Gomer.
- As a prequel to Anastasia the
animated movie Bartok the Magnificient
was produced by Don Bluth.
- Will Vinton produceds The PJs
a prime time television series done with Eddie Murphy
- Fantasia/2000 debuts as an IMAX
- Brad Bird directs The Iron Giant
- a movie that uses cel animation and computer graphics.
- South Park: Bigger, Longer and Uncut
is directed by Trey Parker.
- Chris Buck and Kevin Lima direct Tarzan
- Toy Story 2 -
a sequel debuts directed by John Lasseter, Ash Bannon and Lee Unkrich.
- Walter Williams produces the claymation movie
Saturday Night Live - The Best of Mr. Bill.
Mr. Bill can never escape being crushed by something.
- Star Wars: Episode I: The Phantom Menace
is directed by George Lucas and produced by Rick McCallum and stars
Liam neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman and Jake Lloyd.
- The animated movie Titan a.e.
was produced by Don Bluth and introduces the character Cale.
- Nick Park and Peter Lord direct Chicken Run
- an animated movie starring Rocky and Ginger in a feature length claymation.
- Nick Park directs the feature length claymation The
Incredile Adventures of Wallace & Gromit.
- The computer animated movie Dinosaur
is directed by Eric Leighton and Ralph Zondag and introduces the character
Aladar - an Iguanodon.
- Dungeons and Dragons is directed
by Courtney Soloman and stars Jeremy Irons and Kristen Wilson.
- Sully and Boo debut in the movie Monsters,
Inc. directed by Peter Docter, David Silverman and Lee Unkrich
which stars Billy Crystal, John Goodman and James Coburn,
- Waking Life - directed by Richard
Linklater uses animation in conjunction with live action footage.
- Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson directed the computer animated movie
Shrek with actors Mike Myers, Eddie
Murphy and Cameron Diaz.
- Cats and Dogs is directed by Lawrence
Guterman and stars Tobey McGuire, Alec Baldwin and Susan Sarandon and
introduces the characters of Mr. Tinkles - a rogue feline and Lou -
- The computer animated movie Final Fantasy:
The Spirits Within is directed by Hironobu Sakaguchi and
stars Alec Baldwin, Donald Sutherland and James Woods.
- Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone
is directed by Chris Columbus and stars Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint,
and Emma Watson.
- Jimmy Neutron, Boy Genius- a computer
animated movie - is directed by John A. Davis and stars Patrick Stewart
and Martin Short.
- Peter Jackson directs The Lord of the Rings:
The Fellowship of the Ring which stars Elijah Wood, Sir Ian
McKellen, Sean Astin and Cate Blanchett.
- Sam Raimi directs Spiderman starring
Tobey Maguire, Kirsten Dunst and Willem Dafoe
- Scooby Doo, a computer animated
movie, is directed by Raja Gosnell and stars Freddie Prince Jr., Matthew
Laird, and Sarah Gellar.
- Star Wars: Episode II: Attack of the Clones
is directed by George Lucas and produced by Rick McCallum and stars
Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman and Hayden Christenson.
- Star Trek: Nemesis is directed
by Stuart Baird and stars Patrick Stewart, Jonathan Frakes, Brent Spinner
and Michael Dorn.
- Rob Minkoff directs Stuart Little 2
starring Michale J. Fox, Geena Davis and James Woods.
- The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
- an adaptation of the 1960s animated television series - is directed
by Des McAnuff and stars Rene Russo and Robert DeNiro.
- Peter Hastings directs the movie The Country
Bears - a movie about the greatest bear rock band in history
- which stars Christopher Walken, Haley Osment and Charles C. Dutton
- Peter Jackson directs The Lord of the Rings:
The Two Towers which stars Elijah Wood, Sir Ian McKellen,
Sean Astin and Cate Blanchett.
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
is directed by Chris Columbus and stars Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint,
and Emma Watson.
- Chrsi Wedge directs Ice Age starring
Ray Romano, John Leguizamo and Denis Leary and introduces the characters
of Sid - a sloth, Manny - a woolly mammoth, Diego - a saber-toothed
tiger and Scrat - a saber-toothed squirrel.
- Jonah: A Veggie Tales Movie -
the first feature length film showcasing the Veggie characters - is
directed by Mike Nawrocki and Phil Vischer.
- The computer animated movie Lilo & Stitch
is directed by Chris Sanders and Dean Deblois and stars Daveigh Chase,
Jason Lee and Tia Carrere. The characters are Lilo - a lonely Hawaiian
girl and Stitch - a dog who is part of an alien genetic experiment.
- Aaron Blasie and Rob Walker direct Brother
Bear which introduces the characters Kenai - a teenager who
is turned into a bear and Koda - a bear cub, and stars Joaquin Phoenix
and Rick Moranis.
- Bo Welch directs Dr. Seuss' The Cat in the
Hat - the film adaptation of The
Cat in the Hat by Dr. Seuss published in 1957 - and stars
Mike Myers, Alec baldwin and Amy Hill.
- Peter Jackson directs The Lord of the Rings:
The Return of the King which stars Elijah Wood, Sir Ian
McKellen, Sean Astin and Cate Blanchett.
- The computer animated movie Finding Nemo
is directed by Andrew Stanton and stars Ellen DeGeneres, Willem Dafoe
and Albert Brooks. The film introduces the characters of Marlin and
Nemo - both Clownfish and Dory - a Regal Blue Tangfish.
- The Jungle Book 2 - a computer
animated movie - is directed by Steve Trenbirth and rr-visists the characters
of Mowgli, Ranjan, Shanti and Baloo.
- Joe Dante directs Looney Tunes: Back in Action
starring Brendan Fraser, Steve Martin and Joan Cusack. A movie set in
the live-action world where animated entertainers interact with human
- Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed
is directed by Raja Gosnell and stars Matthew Lillard, Neil fanning
and Sarah Gellar.
- Andrew Adamson directs Shrek 2
which stars Mike Myers, Eddie Murphy and Cameron Diaz.
- The film Garfield is directed
by Peter Hewitt and stars Bill Murray, Jennifer Hewitt and intriduces
the characters of Garfield and Odie. This film is an adaptation from
a syndicated cartoon strip read in 2600 newspapers around the world.
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
is directed by Alfonso Cuaron and stars Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint,
and Emma Watson.